General safety requirements for the hottest mechan

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General safety requirements for machining equipment

1 subject content and scope of application

this standard specifies the general safety requirements for machining equipment

this standard is applicable to metal cutting machine tools, forging equipment, casting equipment, welding equipment and lifting equipment

2 reference standard

gb 2893 safety color

gb 2894 safety signs

gb 4053.3 fixed industrial protective railings

gb 4053.4 fixed industrial steel platform

gb 4064 safety design guidelines for electrical equipment

gb 5083 general principles for safety and health design of production equipment

gb 6527.2 guidelines for the use of safety colors

gb 8196 safety requirements for protective covers of mechanical equipment

gb 8197 safety of protective screens requirements

gb 12265 mechanical anti Safety distance

3 terminology

3.1 processing area

the area where the processed workpiece is placed on the machine for processing

3.2 safety protection devices

all devices configured on the equipment to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment

3.3 hazardous area

area where equipment injury accidents may occur

3.4 working face height

the distance between the plane on which the operator stands and the plane of the operator's hand or forearm during operation

3.5 emergency stop switch

a control switch that can quickly terminate the operation of equipment or working parts in case of danger

4 requirements for main structures

4.1 General requirements

machining equipment must have sufficient strength, stiffness, stability, safety factor and service life to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment

4.2 materials

the materials used by the machining equipment itself should meet the safety and health requirements, and it is not allowed to use materials harmful to human body and materials that have not been tested for safety and health

4.3 shape

the shape and structure of machining equipment should be as flat and smooth as possible to avoid sharp corners and edges

4.4 processing area

4.4.1 effective protective measures should be taken for equipment prone to injury accidents in the processing area

4.4.2 protective measures shall ensure that any part of the operator's body is prevented from entering the dangerous area under the working state of the equipment, or that the equipment cannot run (travel) or make emergency braking when entering the dangerous area

4.4.3 the following protective measures shall be taken for machining equipment alone or at the same time:

a. fully fixed and semi fixed closed cover

b. mechanical or electrical barriers

c. mechanical or electrical interlocking device

d. automatic or semi-automatic feeding and discharging device

e. hand limiter, hand release device

f. mechanical or electrical two hand disengagement device

g. automatic or manual emergency stop device

h. limit devices that cause dangerous travel, feeding or feeding

i. prevent misoperation or misoperation of the device

j. warning or alarm device

k. other protective measures

4.5 moving parts

4.5.1 all moving parts that are easy to cause injury accidents should be closed or shielded, or other protective measures should be taken to avoid the contact of operators

4.5.2 based on the plane on which the operator stands, all kinds of transmission devices with a height of less than 2m must be equipped with protective devices, and material transmission devices and belt transmission devices with a height of more than 2m should be equipped with protective devices

4.5.3 to avoid crushing injury, the distance between linear moving parts or between linear moving parts and stationary parts must comply with the provisions of Article 4.2 of GB 12265

4.5.4 machining equipment shall be equipped with reliable limit devices as required

4.5.5 machining equipment must set overload safety devices for components that may be damaged due to overload

4.5.6 necessary static balance or dynamic balance tests shall be carried out for moving parts rotating at high speed

4.5.7 reliable cushioning measures must be taken for moving parts with inertia impact to prevent injury accidents caused by inertia

4.6 working position

4.6.1 the working position of the machining equipment should be safe and reliable, and should ensure that the operator's head, hands, arms, legs, feet have sufficient activity space in line with psychological and physiological requirements

4.6.2 the working surface height of machining equipment shall meet the requirements of ergonomics

a. the height of working face in sitting position should be between 700-850mm

b. the height of the working face in the standing or standing sitting position should be between 800-1000mm

4.6.3 working chairs that are easy to adjust shall be preferred for machining equipment. See Appendix A (reference parts) to increase the comfort of operators and facilitate operation

4.6.4 when the pressure of the sample reaches the controlled inlet force value, the testing machine will stop pressurizing the sample according to the set loading speed until the working position of the sample crushing mechanical processing equipment should ensure the safety of the operator, the platform and channel must be anti-skid, and if necessary, set up pedals and railings, which must comply with the provisions of GB 4053.4 and GB 4053.3

4.6.5 machining equipment shall be equipped with local lighting devices with safe voltage

4.7 emergency stop device

4.7.1 if the machining equipment has the following conditions, it must be equipped with emergency stop device

a. in case of danger, the equipment operation cannot be stopped quickly through the control switch to terminate the danger

b. it is not allowed to quickly interrupt several dangerous motion units through a master switch

c. other hazards may occur due to cutting off a unit

d. you can't see all the controls on the console

4.7.2 machining equipment requiring emergency stop devices shall be equipped with emergency stop devices at each operating position and where required

4.8 prevention of harmful substances

machining equipment should have devices to deal with and protect against dust, poison, smoke, flash, radiation and other harmful substances, which should not exceed the standard during use

4.9 noise

the noise index of machining equipment should be lower than 85dB (a)

4.10 fire and explosion prevention

mechanical processing equipment should take fire and explosion-proof technical measures according to the use conditions and environmental needs

4.11 electrical installations

electrical installations of machining equipment according to "At present, most enterprises in China are not equipped with friction and wear testing machine GB 4064 to implement.

5 requirements for control mechanism

5.1 General requirements

5.1.1 mechanical processing equipment should be equipped with protective devices to prevent accidental start-up from causing danger.

5.1.2 control lines should ensure that there is no danger after line damage.

5.1.3 automatic or semi-automatic control systems must ensure that accidental hazards are eliminated in functional sequence Possibility, or with reliable protective devices

5.1.4 when the energy of the equipment is cut off accidentally, the braking and clamping actions shall not be interrupted, and when the energy is switched on again, the equipment shall not start automatically

5.1.5 the equipment with high risk shall be equipped with monitoring devices as far as possible

5.2 display

5.2.1 the display should be accurate, simple and reliable

5.2.2 the performance, form, quantity and size of the display and the scale on the dial shall be suitable for information characteristics and human perception characteristics

5.2.3 the following principles should be considered in the arrangement of displays:

a. the most commonly used and main visual displays should be arranged in the position that is most convenient for operators to observe as far as possible

b. the display should be arranged according to functional zones, and there should be obvious differences between zones

c. the visual display should be as close as possible to narrow the field of vision

d. the arrangement of visual displays should be suitable for people's visual habits (that is, the priority is from left to right, from top to bottom)

5.2.4 the display of the display shall adapt to the adjustment direction of the controller and the direction of moving parts

5.2.5 the display of danger signals should be different from other signals in terms of signal strength, form, accuracy and contrast. Generally, visual and auditory dual displays should be preferred

5.3 controller

5.3.1 the following principles should be considered in the arrangement of controllers of machining equipment:

a. controllers should be arranged according to the operation frequency

b. controllers shall be arranged according to their importance

c. controllers shall be arranged according to their functional zones

d. the controller shall be arranged according to its operation sequence and logical relationship

e. the arrangement of controllers should be suitable for people's use habits

5.3.2 the controller shall make it easy for operators to identify its purpose by means of spacing, shape, color or touch, image symbols, etc

5.3.3 the controller shall be interlocked with the safety protection device to make the equipment operate at the same time as the safety protection device

5.3.4 the layout of the controller shall be suitable for human physiological characteristics

5.3.5 the control force of the controller should meet the requirements of human biological force in China's plastic machinery market

5.3.6 for machining equipment operated by two or more people, its controller shall be equipped with interlocking device to avoid danger caused by uncoordinated operation of many people

5.3.7 generally, the position of the control switch should not be set at the position of misoperation

6 requirements for protective devices

6.1 safety protective devices

6.1.1 safety protective devices should be simple in structure and reasonable in layout, without sharp edges and lugs

6.1.2 the safety protection device shall have sufficient reliability and strength, stiffness, stability, corrosion resistance and fatigue resistance within the specified service life to ensure safety

6.1.3 the safety protection device shall be interlocked with the equipment operation to ensure that the equipment cannot operate before the safety protection device does not work

6.1.4 the materials of safety covers, screens and bars, as well as the distance to the running parts, shall be implemented in accordance with GB 8196 and GB 8197

6.1.5 photoelectric, inductive and other safety protection devices shall be equipped with their own fault alarm devices

6.2 emergency stop switch

6.2.1 the emergency stop switch should ensure that when it acts instantaneously, the pillar is usually driven by the lead screw, which can terminate all movements of the equipment. For the equipment with inertia movement, the emergency stop switch should be interlocked with the brake or clutch to terminate the operation quickly

6.2.2 the shape of the emergency stop switch should be different from the general control switch, and the color should be red

6.2.3 the layout of the emergency stop switch should ensure that the operator is easy to reach without danger

6.2.4 after the equipment is stopped by the emergency stop switch, it must be restarted according to the starting sequence before it can be restarted

7 requirements for inspection and maintenance

7.1 General requirements

machining equipment must ensure that there are no hazards and hazards during transportation, handling, installation, use, disassembly and maintenance as required

7.2 center of gravity

for equipment and large components with center of gravity offset, the center of gravity position or hoisting position shall be marked to ensure the safety of equipment installation

7.3 daily maintenance

refueling and daily inspection of machining equipment are generally not allowed to enter the dangerous area

7.4 inspection and maintenance in hazardous areas

if the inspection and maintenance of machining equipment need to be carried out in hazardous areas, reliable protective measures must be taken to prevent hazards

7.5 opening of maintenance parts

the parts of machining equipment that need to enter the maintenance shall have openings suitable for the size requirements of human body measurement

8 other

8.1 safety signs and safety colors

the parts of machining equipment prone to danger should be equipped with safety signs or painted with safety colors to remind operators to pay attention

safety signs and safety colors shall comply with GB 2894, GB 2893 and GB 6527.2

8.2 nameplate

the nameplate of machining equipment shall indicate the main parameters for safe use

8.3 technical documents

the safety of the equipment should be included in the technical documents of the machining equipment

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