General safety measures for the hottest electrical

2022-08-15
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General safety measures for electrical equipment

I. contents of electrical safety work

(1) study and take various effective safety technical measures

(2) research and promote advanced electrical safety technology to improve electrical safety level. (3) Formulate and implement safety technical standards and safety technical regulations

(4) establish and implement various safety management systems

(5) carry out education on electrical safety thoughts and knowledge

(6) analyze the accident examples to find out the accident causes and laws

II. Basic elements to ensure power safety

(1) electrical insulation. Maintaining good insulation between distribution lines and electrical equipment is the most basic element to ensure personal safety and normal operation of electrical equipment. Whether the performance of electrical insulation is good can be measured by measuring its insulation resistance, withstand voltage strength, leakage current, dielectric loss and other parameters

(2) safety distance. Electrical safety distance refers to the safe and reliable distance for human body and objects to approach electrified body without danger. For example, a certain distance should be kept between the charged body and the ground, between the charged body and the charged body, between the charged body and the human body, and between the charged body and other facilities and equipment. Generally, when working near distribution lines and transformation and distribution devices, the safety distance of lines, transformation and distribution devices, maintenance safety distance and operation safety distance should be considered

(3) safe current carrying capacity. The safe current carrying capacity of a conductor refers to the amount of current allowed to continuously pass through the interior of the conductor. If the current passing through the conductor continuously exceeds the safe current carrying capacity, the heating of the conductor will exceed the allowable value, resulting in insulation damage, even electric leakage and fire. Therefore, it is very important to determine the conductor section and select the equipment according to the safe current carrying capacity of the conductor

(4) sign. Obvious, accurate and unified signs are important factors to ensure power safety. Signs generally include color signs, signboard signs, model signs, etc. Color marks indicate conductors of different properties and uses; Signboards and signs are generally used as signs in dangerous places; The model mark is used as the mark of the special structure of the equipment

III. basic requirements for electrical equipment in terms of safety technology

the statistical data of electrical accidents show that a large proportion of accidents are caused by the defective structure and poor installation quality of electrical equipment, which cannot meet the safety requirements. Therefore, in order to ensure personal and equipment safety, there are the following requirements for electrical equipment in terms of safety technology:

(1) reliable protective measures should be taken for live equipment exposed to the ground and easily accessible to people

(2) the live part of the equipment shall be kept a certain safe distance from the ground and other live parts

(3) the power system prone to overvoltage shall be equipped with lightning rod, lightning wire, lightning arrester, protective gap and other process voltage protection devices

(4) low voltage power system shall be equipped with grounding and neutral protection devices

(5) different types of protection measures such as installing high-voltage fuses and circuit breakers should be taken for various high-voltage electrical equipment; Low voltage electrical equipment shall be protected by corresponding low-voltage electrical protection measures

(6) safety signs shall be set at the installation site of electrical equipment

(7) special safety measures should be taken according to the characteristics and requirements of some electrical equipment

IV. classification of electrical accidents and classification of basic causes

electrical accidents can be divided into personal accidents, equipment accidents, electrical fire and explosion accidents according to the form of disasters; According to the circuit condition at the time of the accident, it can be divided into short circuit accident Disconnection accident "I hope that China and Mongolia will be more simplified and convenient in terms of investment and trade, grounding accidents, electric leakage accidents, etc.; according to the severity of the accident, it can be divided into major accidents, major accidents, general accidents, etc.; according to the degree of injury, it can be divided into death, serious injury, and minor injury.

if according to the basic cause of the accident, electrical accidents can be divided into the following categories:

(1) electric shock accident. Personal contact with live bodies (or too close to the high-voltage electrified body), personal injury accidents caused by the control operation essentials due to the current flowing through the human body. Electric shock accidents are caused by the application of current energy to the human body. Electric shock can be divided into single-phase electric shock, two-phase electric shock and step voltage electric shock

(2) lightning and electrostatic accidents. The positive and negative charges that temporarily lose balance in a local range will release the energy of the charge under certain conditions, and adjust the speed gear and code at any time, which will cause harm to the human body or other accidents. Lightning often destroys buildings, injures people and livestock, and may also cause fire; The biggest threat of electrostatic discharge is to cause fire or explosion accidents, which may also cause harm to human body

(3) RF injury. The damage caused by the energy of electromagnetic field to human body, that is, electromagnetic field damage. Under the action of high-frequency electromagnetic field, the human body absorbs radiation energy, and various organs will be damaged to varying degrees, resulting in various diseases. In addition to high-frequency electromagnetic field, ultra-high voltage high-intensity power frequency electromagnetic field will also cause certain harm to human body

(4) circuit failure. Accidents caused by loss of control during the transmission, distribution and conversion of electric energy. Line and equipment failures not only threaten personal safety, but also seriously damage electrical equipment

among the above four electrical accidents, electric shock accidents are the most common. However, no matter what kind of accident, it is caused by the improper release or transfer of various types of current, charge and electromagnetic field energy

v. responsibilities of electricians in terms of electrical safety

in terms of electrical safety, electricians should memorize and consciously perform the following responsibilities:

(1) do not work without a certificate; If non electricians are found to be engaged in electrical operations, they should be stopped in time and reported to the leader

(2) strictly abide by relevant safety laws, regulations and systems, and do not operate against rules

(3) be responsible for the safety of electrical equipment and lines in the jurisdiction

(4) carefully inspect, inspect and eliminate hidden dangers by taking conical steel bars to be wound on the CNC lathe, and fill in the work records and specified forms in a timely and accurate manner

(5) when erecting temporary lines and carrying out other dangerous operations, the approval procedures should be completed, otherwise the construction should be refused

(6) actively publicize electrical safety knowledge, and have the right to stop illegal operations and refuse illegal commands

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